Wooden stakes are a place where the bacterial pathogens that plague tomatoes can survive between crops. In fact, stakes from a tomato planting where research was conducted on bacterial diseases have been used as a source of the pathogen for subsequent experiments! Therefore, it is prudent for growers to disinfect stakes that were in a field where a bacterial disease occurred last year. This step is worthwhile even if there is uncertainty about occurrence considering how difficult bacterial diseases are to manage. There are three bacterial diseases of concern on tomato: speck, spot and canker. Bacterial canker is sufficiently destructive that discarding stakes is recommended after an outbreak. Before the field season is in full swing often presents an opportunity to find time for disinfecting stakes.
Step one in disinfecting anything is removing as much dirt and debris as possible because this can protect pathogens and de-activate disinfectant. Therefore start by hosing down used tomato stakes.
Clorox or other household chlorine bleach (5.25% sodium hypochlorite) is commonly used as an agricultural disinfectant, although quarternary ammonium chloride, detailed below, is a better choice. Use bleach at a rate of 0.5% (=1 part bleach + 9 parts water). And use in a well-ventilated area. Soak stakes for 30 minutes.
While bleach is highly effective, it is short-lived after mixing in water, with a half-life of only 2 hours, and it is especially prone to being inactivated by organic matter, thus pre-cleaning is critical. A disinfectant containing quarternary ammonium chloride salts like Green-Shield is more stable than bleach after diluting with water. Use at 1 tablespoon (=0.5 fl oz) of Green-Shield in 1 gallon water. While this disinfecting solution will be more stable than bleach, it should not be used more than 24 hours after preparation.
Organic growers typically use a disinfecting solution with hydrogen dioxide or peroxide as the active ingredient, such as an OxiDate or SaniDate mixture. Check the labeled rate on the formulation you choose, as initial strengths will vary.
Regardless of the sanitizer, you need to soak stakes for at least 10 minutes to allow sanitizer to penetrate into the porous wood surface.
-CDB, edits by CLS
Originally published by Cornell Cooperative Extension Weekly Vegetable Update, April 4, 2013.
Program Leader: Shuresh Ghimire, Assistant Extension Educator
Weekly Vegetable Pest Alert Weekly vegetable pest alerts focusing on pests, pest management and decision making, and safe pesticide use were delivered to over 600 subscribers via the UConn Extension Vegetable IPM Program listserv from May to September 2020. Starting in mid-July, the vegetable pest alerts were also available in Spanish. These pest alerts are also posted on UConn IPM website Vegetable Pest Messages.
“Thanks to your advice this past June we saved our garlic crop (most of it) from white rot.” Grower comment.
Vegetable Production Certificate Course
In spring of 2020, our Vegetable Program launched an online Vegetable Production Certificate course for the first time with an objective to effectively deliver information to beginner vegetable producers, especially when in-person interactions are limited. The course had seven online modules, each module with a self-paced video, supplemental materials, and a short quiz. This course was designed to benefit beginner vegetable producers with 0-3 years of vegetable growing experience or no formal training in agriculture. The participants learned answers to the basic questions about farm business planning, planning and preparing for vegetable farming, warm and cool-season vegetable production techniques, season extension, identification of biotic and abiotic issues, and marketing. In the post-course evaluation survey (total number of course participants = 23), respondents indicated an average 34% increase in their knowledge from the course.
Mashantucket Pequot Federally Recognized Tribes Extension Program
The Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation and UConn Extension have been collaborating thanks to a USDA Federally Recognized Tribes Extension Program to enhance agricultural production, food security, and health of tribal community members. An Extension program involving several specialists in vegetable and fruit production, farm business management, marketing, youth development, health and nutrition, communications, evaluation and assessment is working with the MPTN on their goals. The major outcomes of the project in 2020 are listed below:
- Increased diversity of crops and production at the MPTN farm.
- Improved consumption of locally grown produce by the MPTN community members.
- Improved marketability and increased revenue from farm produce. The revenue from the farm produce increased from $2,600 in 2019 to $5,500 in 2020.
- Improved the storage capacity and marketability of the farm produce.
- Utilized more tools of integrated pest management compared to previous years.
- The MPTN farm is now better equipped to continue production and expand the farm compared to previous years.
- MPTN farm products are being sold at local supermarkets.
“This grant has helped us bring back a lot of traditional ceremonies because we are able to grow these things with the money that we didn’t potentially have before the grant was offered us”.
Jeremy Whipple, a MPTN member.
UConn Team Members: Shuresh Ghimire (April 2019-present), Mary Concklin (2017-April 2019), Joseph Bonelli, Miriah Kelly (2017-August 2020), and Michael Puglisi. Funding: USDA-FRTEP
Soil-biodegradable plastic mulch professional development training
UConn Extension partnered with Washington State University and University of Tennessee to organize the soilbiodegradable plastic mulch professional development trainings to educate extension personnel, industry representatives, and other agricultural service providers regarding soil-biodegradable plastic mulch so they can provide this information to growers. Two professional development trainings were held for agriculture professionals in northeastern US, and for members of the American Society for Horticultural Science (ASHS). All participants found the training to be informative. In the northeastern US webinar, 27% of participants felt they learned a lot from the training session and 41% learned some new information (N = 58, n = 38). In the ASHS webinar, 48% of participants learned a lot from the training session and 48% of participants learned some new information (N = 30, n = 21).
Hemp Growers Conference and Trade Show
Feb 26, 2020, Maneeley’s Conference Center, South Windsor, CT In February of 2020, UConn Extension partnered with USDA NRCS and CT Resource Conservation and Development to organize the Connecticut Hemp Conference and Trade Show. The goal of the conference was to bring together farmers, agricultural suppliers, and regulatory agencies interested in the hemp industry. The conference covered healthy soils practices, local policy and regulations, Connecticut field trial results, as well as innovative production markets. The speakers from UConn included Candace Bartholomew, Chris Perkins, Gerry Berkowitz, and Jessica Lubell-Brand. The event was a valuable resource for local producers and farmers seeking connections in the state as well as knowledge about local issues and opportunities.
The meeting was attended by 255 current and prospective hemp growers and 32 vendors. Thirty-one participants (12%) completed the evaluation form. Of those that completed the evaluation forms, 82% rated Excellent or Good for the amount of new information they learned at the conference.
Program Leader: Leanne Pundt, Extension Educator
UConn Greenhouse Pest Messages
24 greenhouse pest messages focusing on pest and disease issues, biological controls and IPM decision making were send out via email to 280 growers, retailers and allied members of the greenhouse ornamental horticulture industry and posted on the UConn Greenhouse IPM website under pest messages. http://ipm.uconn.edu/pa_greenhouse/pestMessages.php
Bedding Plants – Spring 2020.
Statewide program, held in two locations, on Feb 7th in Vernon, CT and Feb 11th in Torrington, CT.
Speakers included Dr. Rosa Raudales, Greenhouse Extension Specialist, UConn; Dr. Yonghao Li, plant pathologist from CAES; Abby Beissinger, Plant Pathologist, UConn Plant Diagnostic Laboratory, Candace Bartholomew, Pesticide Safety Educator, UConn Extension; and Leanne Pundt, Extension Educator, UConn Extension. 61 attended.
Of those that filled out evaluation forms, 100 % rated the conference as useful to very useful, 97 % were very or moderately likely to adopt a new practice as a result of attending these programs.
I liked the way this class was done, I enjoyed how Rosa used FAQ and how Leanne went over what to look for in the upcoming season.
Great Job! Thanks for presenting up-to-date relevant topics that growers can relate to.
Thank you, always well put together and informative.
IPM Scouting Tips for Herbaceous Perennials
International Intern Training, June 24, 2020, Casertano Greenhouse, Wallingford, CT. 5 interns attended.
Greenhouse Biological Control Conference
Due to COV-19 restrictions, the Greenhouse Biological Control Conference scheduled for June 23, 2020 was not held. The Jones Auditorium at CAES was also not available for meetings. Proposed speakers were contacted and informed of this decision.
Season Long Hands-on Training 2020
58 site visits were conducted when requested by growers (number was reduced due to COVID). Growers were reached via phone calls, email and text messages in response to their questions and concerns.
Additional Greenhouse Programming:
Pundt wrote three trade journal articles, three Crop Talk Newsletter articles, twenty-two factsheets, and was editor of the 2021-2022 New England Greenhouse Floriculture Guide
Raudales, R. and L. Pundt. (Ed.) 2021-2022. New England Greenhouse Floriculture Guide. A Management Guide for Insects, Diseases, Weeds and Growth Regulators. 248 pages. Available online at: http://negfg.uconn.edu/
The Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Program is a collaboration between UConn Extension and the Department of Plant Science & Landscape Architecture. Since its inception in 1980, the UConn IPM Program has made great strides in developing and implementing sustainable methods for pest control throughout Connecticut. Integrated Pest Management applies multiple tactics in a variety of settings through the selection of appropriate tools and the education of agricultural industry members and Connecticut citizens to provide sustainable, science-based approaches for the management of plant pests (insects, mites, diseases, wildlife, and weeds, including invasive plants). The UConn IPM Program incorporates all possible crop management and pest management strategies through knowledgeable decision-making, utilizing the most efficient landscape and on-farm resources, and integrating cultural and biological controls. Program objectives include maintaining the economic viability of agricultural and green industry businesses, enhancing and conserving environmental quality and natural resources, educating participants on the effective use of cultural practices to mitigate pest problems, of biological control agents, and educating pesticide users about bee and other pollinator safe materials, least toxic options, and the safe use and handling of organic and synthetic pesticide products. The 2020 IPM Program Team included Mary Concklin (fruit and IPM Coordinator), Leanne Pundt (greenhouse), Victoria Wallace (school, invasive, pollinators, turf and landscape), Jacob Ricker (nursery), Ana Legrand (vegetables), Shuresh Ghimire (vegetables), Abby Beissinger (diagnostician, resigned August 2020), Miriah Kelly (program evaluation, resigned August 2020) and Candace Bartholomew (pesticide safety education, retired fall 2020).
The goal of IPM is to reduce the dependence of agricultural producers and green industry professionals, Connecticut citizens, and schools on pesticides while maintaining or improving productivity, crop quality, and quality of life. The IPM Program has educated growers statewide about the judicious and safe use of organic and synthetic pesticides and alternative pest control methods.
Broader adoption of IPM practices enhances responsible pest management and reduced management and production costs; minimizes adverse environmental and economic effects from pests and pest management; results in improved ecosystem quality and plant performance; and improves plant health, quality, yields, and aesthetics. The use of IPM includes cultural controls; biological control agents; biological fungicides; physical and mechanical controls; the use of resistant cultivars; regulatory controls; behavioral modification; and, only when necessary, chemical controls, with the selection of least toxic products. IPM partners and collaborators include State and Federal agricultural and environmental/non-governmental agencies and organizations; State, New England, and Northeastern fruit, greenhouse, grounds keepers, nursery, turf, landscape, and vegetable associations; industry suppliers/dealers; regional universities; educators; schools and municipalities; individual growers, farmers, and producers; Master Gardeners; and the general public.
COVID-19 impacted many outreach programs usually conducted face-to-face. However, our team members quickly adapted and offered many programs virtually, while others have been postponed until 2021 and 2022. In 2020 pre-COVID-19 and in “normal” years, IPM Program team members conduct intensive on-site educational training for fruit and vegetable producers, garden center owners, greenhouse growers, nursery producers and retailers, and turf and landscape professionals. Growers and green industry professionals receive information on the current status of and recommendations for important plant pests and training via pest messages, email alerts, webinars, newsletters, articles in national trade journals, management guides, websites, social media, consultations and counseling via phone and text, site visits to their operations, workshops, field demonstrations and research projects, conferences, exhibits, and short courses. IPM programs are evaluated through pre- and/or post-program surveys and evaluations, needs assessment surveys, focus groups, key informant interviews, testimonials, and unsolicited comments.
View the full 2020 IPM Team Annual Report.
The American Farmland Trust’s Farmer Relief Fund will award farmers with cash grants to help them through this health crisis. Complete information is available here.
This 101 page guide to grant and assistance programs is available here.